A circular image

Now let's do some additional styling to the main content. The kitten image should be round, we want the logo to be positioned above the kitten, and the two phrases should be centered on the image. Things like making circular images and even centering content on web pages used to be a dark art in front-end web development. However, thanks to the latest advances in CSS, we can now forget those terrible times and use the power of flexbox to get everything in place!

We are going to use some new CSS3 rules to make the main image circular. One trick to make the image round is to use the border-radius property. Applying a border-radius of 50% (or 100% - why one or the other? Read about it here) to an element makes it a circle.

The box model for HTML elements

In an HTML document, each element is represented as a rectangular box. Determining the size, properties — like its color, background, borders aspect — and the position of these boxes is the goal of the rendering engine (inside the browser).

In CSS, each of these rectangular boxes is described using the standard box model. This model describes the content of the space taken by an element. Each box has four edges: the margin edge, border edge, padding edge, and content edge.

box model

The content area is the area containing the real content of the element. It often has a background, a color or an image.

The padding area extends to the border surrounding the padding. When the content area has a background, color, or image set on it, this will extend into the padding, which is why you can think of the padding as extending the content. The padding is located inside the padding edge.

The border area extends the padding area to the area containing the borders. It is the area inside the border edge.

The margin area extends the border area with an empty area used to separate the element from its neighbors. It is the area inside the margin edge.

This information adapted from Introduction to the CSS box model by Mozilla Contributors and is licensed under CC-BY-SA 2.5.

Add a class to your image. Make sure that your image is a perfect square otherwise the circle won't work! Next add the 50% border-radius rule to your image class.

It should be something like this in the HTML:

   <img class="circle" src="http://placekitten.com/g/600/600" />

And the CSS is as simple as:

   .circle {
     border-radius: 50%;

Centering elements with flex

Now, that we know a bit more about the box model, let's try to use that knowledge to center our content. We want to use one of the newest rules in the CSS realm, which has turned our world upside-down when it comes to positioning things on a web page. This used to involve a lot of hacks and ugliness but now that we have flexbox, we have a nice and consistent way to position things on our pages.

The flexbox concept might be a bit of beast to wrap your head around, so let's go through it step by step. We don't want to center everything - just the main content section and the footer, so let's wrap a div around those two sections to keep them together. div is the division element, it's used to group elements together and it's a great way to keep your content on the page organized.

Make a class called flex in your CSS file and then add the class to the new div tag around the section and the footer. Add the following rules to the flex class in your CSS:

   display: -webkit-box;  /* OLD - iOS 6-, Safari 3.1-6, BB7 */
   display: -ms-flexbox;  /* TWEENER - IE 10 */
   display: -webkit-flex; /* NEW - Safari 6.1+. iOS 7.1+, BB10 */
   display: flex;         /* NEW, Spec - Firefox, Chrome, Opera */

Why did we add four rules instead of just one? Ultimately, we still have to cater to the various browser versions that implement the same style using different rules. All newer browsers use the display:flex; rule, but older browsers still need their vendor prefix. A good page to check if a prefix is needed for a rule, is http://shouldiprefix.com/.

If you reload the browser, you should see that the content moved, but didn't get centered. The content has now aligned itself horizontally. If you read about flexbox, you'll know why, but let's recap. Flex has two different ways to align elements and the default setting is horizontally (like a row). To change its default behavior, we have to use the flex-direction property.

Content in flex row

Add another class called column and add the flex-direction rule to it. Add the additional class to the div you just created. We keep them separate as we are going to use the flex class again!

Your flex class should look like this

   .flex {
     display: -webkit-box;  /* OLD - iOS 6-, Safari 3.1-6, BB7 */
     display: -ms-flexbox;  /* TWEENER - IE 10 */
     display: -webkit-flex; /* NEW - Safari 6.1+. iOS 7.1+, BB10 */
     display: flex;         /* NEW, Spec - Firefox, Chrome, Opera */

   .column {
     flex-direction: column;

The content is now almost back into the correct order. We still need to add another div for the logo and main image to get things properly sorted.

Add another div around the logo and main image and use the flex & column class again.

Now everything is in the right order but your image may be squashed and oval-shaped! That's because it is trying to take up all the available space. We need to tell it that we just want it centered. We will use the align-items:center; rule for that.

Add this rule to your flex class:

   align-items: center;

Once you have saved your files, reload your browser and voilà! The content is perfectly centered!

When can I use new CSS3 rules?

As a developer it is important that you stay up to date on new technologies and it's decidedly fun to start playing with new technologies, particularly web ones. However, it is also important that you are aware that not all browsers will start supporting new ideas right away or they may support them in different ways. This might mean that you have to make the decision to use a new technology with the risk of it not being supported by all browsers, which could mean that you will have some users not being able to access your site or certain features of it. This can of course be prevented by graceful degradation but it's best if you are aware of potential problems. A good source to test if a feature is available, and can be used without any issues, is the excellent site Can I Use?.

As we have decided to use flexbox and border-radius, our page does not support users on IE8 (for the border-radius) and IE9 (for flexbox). To get support in IE10 and IE11, we must use vendor-prefix rules. This means that the content will not have a circular image and won't be centered. Any ideas how we can support those older browsers?

You guessed it, graceful degradation! In this case we could make use of the older hacks for centering the content and come up with a different way to make the image circular. Alternatively, we can load in different stylesheets based on browser features. This requires additional logic in the <head> tag or some JavaScript. The source code of the HTML5 Boilerplate might give you an idea on how that is done if you are interested in finding out more.

The z-index

Now, let's move the content into the correct place vertically. We want the logo to be on top of the circular image and we want the titles closer to the bottom of the circular image.

Add some margin to the bottom of your header tag. This will position it lower and will avoid the logo covering the navigation links when the browser window is resized. Once you've done that, use some negative margin on the top of the circular image to move it below the logo. Negative margin can be used just like regular margin. But, like you may suspect, it will move the box element in the opposite direction. Let's add a new class for that called main-img as we might need the circle class at a later point to make more elements round.

You should have something like the following rules in your CSS:

   .header {
     border-top: solid 8px #019cdb; 
     margin-bottom: 18px; /* new addition */

   .main-img {
     margin-top: -60px;

And your HTML should have a new class on the image:

   <img class="main-img circle" src="http://placekitten.com/g/600/600" />

Your website should now look like this:

Logo below image

Oops! The logo is hidden behind the circular image. This has to do with how our HTML elements are rendered onto the page and the box models we introduced earlier. Because we have the logo first in the HTML followed by the main image, the main image will be rendered last or "on top" of what has come before. But there is a nifty CSS property that overrides the order of things. The z-index property allows you to change the order of elements on the page (but should be used sparingly). The higher the index, the more "on top" the image.

Add a class to the logo and add the rule z-index: 2; to it. Our logo is a bit big, so we will resize it by using the width property. In general, you shouldn't set both width and height to fixed pixel values as that will most likely distort images (unless it's a square and you are reusing the proportions).

The HTML should be:

   <img class="logo" src="https://goo.gl/RG3GtK" />

And the CSS is as simple as:

   .logo {
     z-index: 2;
     width: 100px;

Now the logo is where it is supposed to be and a more agreeable size. Let's move the titles into the right place too, right on top of the circular image. However we want the footer to stay where it is for now. The easiest way to do this is make the footer sticky first. This is another useful web skill!


If you have feedback on this tutorial or find any mistakes, please open issues on the GitHub Repository or comment below.

Summer academy

An iOS Development Summer Course

Design, code and launch your own app. Locations in San Francisco and Asia

Find your location

Product College

A computer science college

Graduate into a successful career as a founder or software engineer.

Learn more

Cookies on Make School's website

We have placed cookies on your device to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website.

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. Your use of Make School’s Products and Services is subject to these policies and terms.

Please note that Make School no longer supports Internet Explorer

We recommend upgrading to a modern web browser. Learn more